makarov pistol. Makarov pistol


Makarov pistol - Wikipedia

The Makarov pistol or PM (Russian: Пистолет Макарова, Pistolet Makarova, literally Makarov's Pistol) is a Russian semi-automatic pistol. Under the project leadership of Nikolay Fyodorovich Makarov, it became the Soviet Union's standard military and police side arm in 1951.[4]

Development[edit]

Shortly after the Second World War, the Soviet Union reactivated its plans to replace the Tokarev TT33 self-loading pistols and Nagant M1895 revolvers. The adoption of the future AK assault rifle relegated the pistol to a light, handy self-defence weapon. Therefore, the TT30/33 was unsuited for such a role, as it was heavy and bulky. Also, the Tokarev pistols omitted a safety and magazines were deemed too easy to lose. As a result, in December 1945, two separate contests for a new service pistol were created, respectively for a 7.62mm and 9mm pistol. It was later judged that the new 9.2×18mm cartridge, designed by B. V. Semin, was the best round suited for the intended role. The lower pressures of the cartridge allowed practical straight blowback operation (reducing the cost and complexity of the weapon), while retaining low recoil and good stopping power.

Several engineers took part in the contest, including Korovin, Baryshev, Vojvodin, Simonov, Rakov, Klimov, Lobanov, Sevryugin and Makarov. Special emphasis was placed on safety, user-friendliness, accuracy, weight, and dimensions. After stringent handling, reliability, and other tests, Makarov's pistol, which was inspired from the German Walther PP,[5][6] stood out from other designs through its sheer simplicity, excellent reliability, quick disassembly, and robustness. During April 1948, Makarov's pistol experienced 20 times fewer malfunctions than the competing Baryshev and Sevryugin counterparts, and had fewer parts. The pistol was therefore selected in 1949 for further development and optimization for mass production. Tooling was set up in the Izhevsk plant for production. After many major design changes and tweaks, the gun was formally adopted as the "9mm Pistolet Makarova", or "PM" in December 1951.

As the new standard issue sidearm of the USSR, the PM was issued to NCOs, police, special forces, and tank and air crews. It remained in wide front-line service with Soviet military and police until and beyond the end of the USSR in 1991. Variants of the pistol remain in production in Russia, China, and Bulgaria. In the U.S., surplus Soviet and East German military Makarovs are listed as eligible curio and relic items by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, because the countries of manufacture, the USSR and the GDR, no longer exist.[7]

In 2003, the Makarov PM was formally replaced by the PYa pistol in Russian service,[8] although as of 2016[update], large numbers of Makarov pistols are still in Russian military and police service.[9] The PM is still the service pistol of many Eastern European and former Soviet republics. North Korea and Vietnam also use PMs as standard-issue pistols.[10]

The PM is a medium-size, straight-blowback-action, all-steel construction, frame-fixed barrel handgun. In blowback designs, the only force holding the slide closed is that of the recoil spring; upon firing, the barrel and slide do not have to unlock, as do locked-breech-design pistols. Blowback designs are simple and more accurate than designs using a recoiling, tilting, or articulated barrel, but they are limited practically by the weight of the slide. The 9×18mm cartridge is a practical cartridge in blowback-operated pistols; producing a respectable level of energy from a gun of moderate weight and size. The PM is heavy for its size by modern US commercial handgun standards, largely because in a blowback pistol, the heavy slide provides greater inertia to delay opening of the breech until internal pressures have fallen to a safe level. Other, more powerful cartridges have been used in blowback pistol designs, but the Makarov is widely regarded as particularly well balanced in its design elements.[11]

The general layout and field-strip procedure of the Makarov pistol is similar to that of the PP.[11] However, designer N.Makarov and his team drastically simplified the construction of the pistol, improving reliability and reducing the part count to an astonishing 27, not including the magazine. This allowed considerable ease of manufacture and servicing. All of the individual parts of the PM have been optimised for mass production, robustness and interchangeability, partially thanks to captured German tooling, technology, and machinery.

The chrome-lined, four-groove, 9.27mm caliber barrel is pressed and pinned to the frame through a precision-machined ring. The 7 kg recoil spring wraps around and is guided by the barrel. The spring-loaded trigger guard is pivoted down and swung to either side on the frame, allowing removal of the slide. The front sight is integrally machined into the slide, and a 3–4 mm wide textured strip is engraved on top of the slide in order to prevent aim-disturbing glare. The rear sight is dovetailed into the slide and multiple heights are available to adjust the impact point. The extractor is of an external spring-loaded type, and features a prominent flange preventing loss if a case should rupture. The breech face is deeply recessed in order to aid in extraction and ejection reliability. The stamped sheet steel slide-lock lever has a tail serving the purpose of ejector. The one-piece, wraparound bakelite or plastic grip is reinforced with steel inserts and has a detent inside the screw bushing preventing unscrewing during firing. The sheet-metal mainspring housed inside the grip panel powers the hammer in both the main and rebound stroke, the trigger and the disconnector, while its lower end is the heel and spring of the magazine catch. The sear spring also serves another function, powering the slide lock lever. Makarov pistol parts seldom break with normal usage, and are easily serviced using few tools.[11]

The PM has a free-floating triangular firing pin, with no firing pin spring or firing pin block. This theoretically allows the possibility of accidental firing if the pistol is dropped on its muzzle. Designer Nikolay Makarov thought the firing pin of insufficient mass to constitute a major danger. The Makarov pistol is notable for the safety elements of its design, with a safety lever that simultaneously decocks and blocks the hammer from contacting the firing pin and returns the weapon to the long-trigger-pull mode of double action when that safety is engaged. When handled properly, the Makarov pistol has excellent security against accidental discharge caused by inadvertent pressure on the trigger, e.g., in carrying the weapon in dense brush or re-holstering it. However, the heavy trigger weight in double-action mode decreases first-shot accuracy. The Bulgarian-model Makarov pistol was approved for sale in the US state of California, having passed a state-mandated drop-safety test though the certification was not renewed and it has since been removed from the roster of approved handguns.[12]

Operation[edit]

The PM has a DA/SA trigger mechanism. Engaging the manual safety simultaneously decocks the hammer if cocked, and prevents movement of slide, trigger and hammer. Both carrying with safety engaged, or with safety disengaged and hammer uncocked are considered safe. The DA trigger pull is heavy, requiring a strong squeeze, trading first shot accuracy for safety. Racking the slide, manually cocking the hammer or firing a cartridge all cock the hammer, setting the trigger for the next shot to single action. The PM is a semi-automatic firearm, therefore its rate of fire depends on how rapidly the shooter squeezes the trigger. Spent cartridges are ejected some 5.5–6 meters away to the shooter's right and rear. After firing the last round, the slide is held back by the slide stop lever/ejector. Magazines can be removed from the gun via the heel release, located on the bottom of the grip. After loading a fresh magazine, the slide can be released by pressing the lever on the left side of the frame or by racking the slide and releasing it; either action loads a cartridge into the chamber and readies the pistol to fire again.

Variants[edit]

Parkerized and dura-painted Makarov PM. Russian production.

The Makarov pistol was manufactured in several communist countries during the Cold War and afterwards; apart from the USSR itself, they were East Germany, Bulgaria, China, and post-reunification Germany, which also found itself with several thousand ex-GDR Makarov pistols.

The most widely known variant, the PMM (Pistolet Makarova Modernizirovannyy or Modernised Makarov pistol), was a redesign of the original gun. In 1990, a group of engineers reworked the original design, primarily by increasing the load for the cartridge. The result is a significant increase in muzzle velocity and generation of 25% more gas pressure. The PMM magazine holds 12 rounds, compared to the PM's eight rounds. Versions that held ten rounds were produced in greater quantities than the 12-round magazine. The PMM is able to use existing 9.2×18mm PM cartridges and has other minor modifications such as more ergonomic grip panels as well as flutes in the chamber that aid in extraction.[13] As of 2015, it is—alongside MP-443 Grach—the service pistol of the Russian Airborne Troops.[14]

A silenced version of the Makarov pistol, the PB, was developed for use by reconnaissance groups and the KGB, with a dedicated detachable suppressor.

An experimental variant of the Makarov pistol, the TKB-023, was designed with a polymer frame to reduce the weight and costs of the weapon. It had passed Soviet military trials but was never fielded, due to concerns about the polymer's capacities for long-term storage and use.

Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia have developed their own handgun designs chambering the 9×18mm round. Hungary developed the FEG PA-63, Poland the P-64 and the P-83 Wanad and Czechoslovakia the vz.82. While similar in operation (straight blowback), and chambered for the same round, these pistols are often found labeled at gun shows by some US gun retailers as "Polish Makarovs" and "Hungarian Makarovs". Nonetheless, these cosmetically similar designs are independent of the PM and have more in common with the Walther PP (which, in fact, was also a major influence on the original Russian Makarov [15]).

A wide variety of aftermarket additions and replacements exist for the Makarov pistol, including replacement barrels, custom grips, custom finishes and larger sights with various properties to replace the notoriously small originals. A scope/light mount exists for the Makarov pistol but requires a threaded replacement barrel.

Baikal[edit]

Baikal is a brand developed by IGP around which a series of shotgun products were designed from 1962. After the collapse of the USSR, commercial gun manufacture was greatly expanded under the Baikal brand.

During the 1990s, Baikal marketed various Makarov-derived handguns in the United States under the IJ-70 model. Included were handguns in both standard and high-capacity frames. They were available in .380 ACP in addition to the standard 9 mm Makarov round. Some minor modifications were made to facilitate importation into the United States, including the replacement of the rear fixed sight with an adjustable sight (only these Russian models marketed abroad feature an adjustable sight). A sporting version is the Baikal-442.[16] The importation of these commercial models into the U.S. was later further restricted with the U.S. Government's importation ban on Russian firearms.

The Baikal IZH-79-8 is a modified version of the standard Makarov pistol, with an 8 mm barrel, modified to allow it to fire gas cartridges. These guns proved popular after the fall of the USSR, and were used in Eastern Europe for personal protection. However, unlike most gas firing guns, the body is made of standard Makarov-specification steel, and hence this gun is popular with criminals due to its low cost of purchase and ease of boring out to fire standard 9 mm rounds.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Small Arms Survey (2012). "Surveying the Battlefield: Illicit Arms In Afghanistan, Iraq, and Somalia" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets. Cambridge University Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-521-19714-4.
  2. ^ Makarov.com, Makarov Basics, retrieved 2008-01-27
  3. ^ Dowling, Timothy C. (2015). Russia at War. ABC CLIO. p. 496. ISBN 978-1-59884-947-9. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  4. ^ Sweeney, Patrick (2009). Gunsmithing - Pistols and Revolvers. GunDigest Books. p. 355. ISBN 978-1-4402-0389-3. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  5. ^ Peterson, Philip (23 June 2011). "How Did They Get Here?". Standard Catalog of Military Firearms: The Collector's Price and Reference Guide. Iola, Wisconsin: F+W Media. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-4402-2881-0. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  6. ^ world.guns.ru, Modern Firearms - Makarov PM, archived from the original on 2008-04-05, retrieved 2008-01-27
  7. ^ Galeotti, Mark (February 2017). The Modern Russian Army 1992–2016. Elite 217. Osprey Publishing. pp. 55–56. ISBN 9781472819086.
  8. ^ Hogg, Ian; Walter, John (29 August 2004). Pistols of the World. David & Charles. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-87349-460-1. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  9. ^ a b c Kinard, Jeff (2004). Pistols: An Illustrated History of Their Impact. ABC-CLIO. pp. 257, 259–260. ISBN 978-1-85109-470-7. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  10. ^ "Department of Justice Bureau of Firearms De-Certified Handgun Models" (PDF). ca.gov. Department of Justice Bureau of Firearms. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  11. ^ Cutshaw, Charles Q. (28 February 2011). Tactical Small Arms of the 21st Century: A Complete Guide to Small Arms From Around the World. Iola, Wisconsin: Gun Digest Books. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-4402-2709-7. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  12. ^ http://ria.ru/defense_safety/20150801/1157827137.html
  13. ^ world.guns.ru Quote: "almost immediately after the war the GAU issued a new set of requirements for a military and police pistol. These requirements asked for a compact, double action pistol of the Walther PP type...". Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  14. ^ ' "BAIKAL-442" Sporting Pistol (for export)' Archived 2009-08-31 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ Adam Luck (11 January 2009). "How the Baikal became Britain's favourite killing machine". Daily Mail. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  17. ^ Albania: Special Operations and Counterterrorist Forces Archived 2013-08-22 at the Wayback Machine. at specialoperations.com (a non-official, personal website). Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  18. ^ Small Arms Survey (2007). "Armed Violence in Burundi: Conflict and Post-Conflict Bujumbura" (PDF). The Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City. Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-521-88039-8.
  19. ^ Kokalis, Peter. Weapons Tests And Evaluations: The Best Of Soldier Of Fortune. Paladin Press. 2001. pp99–102.
  20. ^ Hogg, Ian (2002). Jane's Guns Recognition Guide. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-00-712760-X.
  21. ^ "Urgent Fury 1983: WWII weapons encountered". wordpress.com. 18 October 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  22. ^ Small Arms Survey (2005). "Sourcing the Tools of War: Small Arms Supplies to Conflict Zones" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War. Oxford University Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-19-928085-8.
  23. ^ US Department of Defense: North Korea Country Handbook (1997) page xii, at Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  24. ^ "Google Sites". sites.google.com. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  25. ^ http://www.mo.gov.si/fileadmin/mo.gov.si/pageuploads/pdf/javne_objave/2015/orozje_2015/Sklopi1_8_za_objavo.pdf
  26. ^ a b Marchington, James (2004). The Encyclopedia of Handheld Weapons. Lewis International, Inc. ISBN 1-930983-14-X.
  27. ^ VCCorp.vn. "Quân đội Nhân dân Việt Nam được trang bị những loại súng ngắn nào". soha.vn. Retrieved 22 March 2018.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Datig, Fred A. (1988). The History and Development of Imperial and Soviet Russian Military Small Arms and Ammunition 1700–1986. Glenview, IL: Handgun Press. ISBN 9780945828037. OCLC 19742826.
  • Kokalis, Peter (2001). Weapons Tests and Evaluations: The Best of Soldier of Fortune. Boulder, Col.: Paladin Press. pp. 99–102. ISBN 978-1-58160-122-0. OCLC 49695650.

External links[edit]

en.wikiyy.com

makarov pistol Wikipedia

The Makarov pistol or PM (Russian: Пистолет Макарова, Pistolet Makarova, literally Makarov's Pistol) is a Russian semi-automatic pistol. Under the project leadership of Nikolay Fyodorovich Makarov, it became the Soviet Union's standard military and police side arm in 1951.[4]

Development[]

Shortly after the Second World War, the Soviet Union reactivated its plans to replace the Tokarev TT33 self-loading pistols and Nagant M1895 revolvers. The adoption of the future AK assault rifle relegated the pistol to a light, handy self-defence weapon. Therefore, the TT30/33 was unsuited for such a role, as it was heavy and bulky. Also, the Tokarev pistols omitted a safety and magazines were deemed too easy to lose. As a result, in December 1945, two separate contests for a new service pistol were created, respectively for a 7.62mm and 9mm pistol. It was later judged that the new 9.2×18mm cartridge, designed by B. V. Semin, was the best round suited for the intended role. The lower pressures of the cartridge allowed practical straight blowback operation (reducing the cost and complexity of the weapon), while retaining low recoil and good stopping power.

Several engineers took part in the contest, including Korovin, Baryshev, Vojvodin, Simonov, Rakov, Klimov, Lobanov, Sevryugin and Makarov. Special emphasis was placed on safety, user-friendliness, accuracy, weight, and dimensions. After stringent handling, reliability, and other tests, Makarov's pistol, which was inspired from the German Walther PP,[5][6] stood out from other designs through its sheer simplicity, excellent reliability, quick disassembly, and robustness. During April 1948, Makarov's pistol experienced 20 times fewer malfunctions than the competing Baryshev and Sevryugin counterparts, and had fewer parts. The pistol was therefore selected in 1949 for further development and optimization for mass production. Tooling was set up in the Izhevsk plant for production. After many major design changes and tweaks, the gun was formally adopted as the "9mm Pistolet Makarova", or "PM" in December 1951.

As the new standard issue sidearm of the USSR, the PM was issued to NCOs, police, special forces, and tank and air crews. It remained in wide front-line service with Soviet military and police until and beyond the end of the USSR in 1991. Variants of the pistol remain in production in Russia, China, and Bulgaria. In the U.S., surplus Soviet and East German military Makarovs are listed as eligible curio and relic items by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, because the countries of manufacture, the USSR and the GDR, no longer exist.[7]

In 2003, the Makarov PM was formally replaced by the PYa pistol in Russian service,[8] although as of 2016[update], large numbers of Makarov pistols are still in Russian military and police service.[9] The PM is still the service pistol of many Eastern European and former Soviet republics. North Korea and Vietnam also use PMs as standard-issue pistols.[10]

Design[]

The PM is a medium-size, straight-blowback-action, all-steel construction, frame-fixed barrel handgun. In blowback designs, the only force holding the slide closed is that of the recoil spring; upon firing, the barrel and slide do not have to unlock, as do locked-breech-design pistols. Blowback designs are simple and more accurate than designs using a recoiling, tilting, or articulated barrel, but they are limited practically by the weight of the slide. The 9×18mm cartridge is a practical cartridge in blowback-operated pistols; producing a respectable level of energy from a gun of moderate weight and size. The PM is heavy for its size by modern US commercial handgun standards, largely because in a blowback pistol, the heavy slide provides greater inertia to delay opening of the breech until internal pressures have fallen to a safe level. Other, more powerful cartridges have been used in blowback pistol designs, but the Makarov is widely regarded as particularly well balanced in its design elements.[11]

The general layout and field-strip procedure of the Makarov pistol is similar to that of the PP.[11] However, designer N.Makarov and his team drastically simplified the construction of the pistol, improving reliability and reducing the part count to an astonishing 27, not including the magazine. This allowed considerable ease of manufacture and servicing. All of the individual parts of the PM have been optimised for mass production, robustness and interchangeability, partially thanks to captured German tooling, technology, and machinery.

The chrome-lined, four-groove, 9.27mm caliber barrel is pressed and pinned to the frame through a precision-machined ring. The 7 kg recoil spring wraps around and is guided by the barrel. The spring-loaded trigger guard is pivoted down and swung to either side on the frame, allowing removal of the slide. The front sight is integrally machined into the slide, and a 3–4 mm wide textured strip is engraved on top of the slide in order to prevent aim-disturbing glare. The rear sight is dovetailed into the slide and multiple heights are available to adjust the impact point. The extractor is of an external spring-loaded type, and features a prominent flange preventing loss if a case should rupture. The breech face is deeply recessed in order to aid in extraction and ejection reliability. The stamped sheet steel slide-lock lever has a tail serving the purpose of ejector. The one-piece, wraparound bakelite or plastic grip is reinforced with steel inserts and has a detent inside the screw bushing preventing unscrewing during firing. The sheet-metal mainspring housed inside the grip panel powers the hammer in both the main and rebound stroke, the trigger and the disconnector, while its lower end is the heel and spring of the magazine catch. The sear spring also serves another function, powering the slide lock lever. Makarov pistol parts seldom break with normal usage, and are easily serviced using few tools.[11]

The PM has a free-floating triangular firing pin, with no firing pin spring or firing pin block. This theoretically allows the possibility of accidental firing if the pistol is dropped on its muzzle. Designer Nikolay Makarov thought the firing pin of insufficient mass to constitute a major danger. The Makarov pistol is notable for the safety elements of its design, with a safety lever that simultaneously decocks and blocks the hammer from contacting the firing pin and returns the weapon to the long-trigger-pull mode of double action when that safety is engaged. When handled properly, the Makarov pistol has excellent security against accidental discharge caused by inadvertent pressure on the trigger, e.g., in carrying the weapon in dense brush or re-holstering it. However, the heavy trigger weight in double-action mode decreases first-shot accuracy. The Bulgarian-model Makarov pistol was approved for sale in the US state of California, having passed a state-mandated drop-safety test though the certification was not renewed and it has since been removed from the roster of approved handguns.[12]

Operation[]

The PM has a DA/SA trigger mechanism. Engaging the manual safety simultaneously decocks the hammer if cocked, and prevents movement of slide, trigger and hammer. Both carrying with safety engaged, or with safety disengaged and hammer uncocked are considered safe. The DA trigger pull is heavy, requiring a strong squeeze, trading first shot accuracy for safety. Racking the slide, manually cocking the hammer or firing a cartridge all cock the hammer, setting the trigger for the next shot to single action. The PM is a semi-automatic firearm, therefore its rate of fire depends on how rapidly the shooter squeezes the trigger. Spent cartridges are ejected some 5.5–6 meters away to the shooter's right and rear. After firing the last round, the slide is held back by the slide stop lever/ejector. Magazines can be removed from the gun via the heel release, located on the bottom of the grip. After loading a fresh magazine, the slide can be released by pressing the lever on the left side of the frame or by racking the slide and releasing it; either action loads a cartridge into the chamber and readies the pistol to fire again.

Variants[]

Parkerized and dura-painted Makarov PM. Russian production.

The Makarov pistol was manufactured in several communist countries during the Cold War and afterwards; apart from the USSR itself, they were East Germany, Bulgaria, China, and post-reunification Germany, which also found itself with several thousand ex-GDR Makarov pistols.

The most widely known variant, the PMM (Pistolet Makarova Modernizirovannyy or Modernised Makarov pistol), was a redesign of the original gun. In 1990, a group of engineers reworked the original design, primarily by increasing the load for the cartridge. The result is a significant increase in muzzle velocity and generation of 25% more gas pressure. The PMM magazine holds 12 rounds, compared to the PM's eight rounds. Versions that held ten rounds were produced in greater quantities than the 12-round magazine. The PMM is able to use existing 9.2×18mm PM cartridges and has other minor modifications such as more ergonomic grip panels as well as flutes in the chamber that aid in extraction.[13] As of 2015, it is—alongside MP-443 Grach—the service pistol of the Russian Airborne Troops.[14]

A silenced version of the Makarov pistol, the PB, was developed for use by reconnaissance groups and the KGB, with a dedicated detachable suppressor.

An experimental variant of the Makarov pistol, the TKB-023, was designed with a polymer frame to reduce the weight and costs of the weapon. It had passed Soviet military trials but was never fielded, due to concerns about the polymer's capacities for long-term storage and use.

Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia have developed their own handgun designs chambering the 9×18mm round. Hungary developed the FEG PA-63, Poland the P-64 and the P-83 Wanad and Czechoslovakia the vz.82. While similar in operation (straight blowback), and chambered for the same round, these pistols are often found labeled at gun shows by some US gun retailers as "Polish Makarovs" and "Hungarian Makarovs". Nonetheless, these cosmetically similar designs are independent of the PM and have more in common with the Walther PP (which, in fact, was also a major influence on the original Russian Makarov [15]).

A wide variety of aftermarket additions and replacements exist for the Makarov pistol, including replacement barrels, custom grips, custom finishes and larger sights with various properties to replace the notoriously small originals. A scope/light mount exists for the Makarov pistol but requires a threaded replacement barrel.

Baikal[]

Baikal is a brand developed by IGP around which a series of shotgun products were designed from 1962. After the collapse of the USSR, commercial gun manufacture was greatly expanded under the Baikal brand.

During the 1990s, Baikal marketed various Makarov-derived handguns in the United States under the IJ-70 model. Included were handguns in both standard and high-capacity frames. They were available in .380 ACP in addition to the standard 9 mm Makarov round. Some minor modifications were made to facilitate importation into the United States, including the replacement of the rear fixed sight with an adjustable sight (only these Russian models marketed abroad feature an adjustable sight). A sporting version is the Baikal-442.[16] The importation of these commercial models into the U.S. was later further restricted with the U.S. Government's importation ban on Russian firearms.

The Baikal IZH-79-8 is a modified version of the standard Makarov pistol, with an 8 mm barrel, modified to allow it to fire gas cartridges. These guns proved popular after the fall of the USSR, and were used in Eastern Europe for personal protection. However, unlike most gas firing guns, the body is made of standard Makarov-specification steel, and hence this gun is popular with criminals due to its low cost of purchase and ease of boring out to fire standard 9 mm rounds.[17]

Users[]

See also[]

References[]

  1. ^ Small Arms Survey (2012). "Surveying the Battlefield: Illicit Arms In Afghanistan, Iraq, and Somalia" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets. Cambridge University Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-521-19714-4.
  2. ^ Makarov.com, Makarov Basics, retrieved 2008-01-27
  3. ^ Dowling, Timothy C. (2015). Russia at War. ABC CLIO. p. 496. ISBN 978-1-59884-947-9. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  4. ^ Sweeney, Patrick (2009). Gunsmithing - Pistols and Revolvers. GunDigest Books. p. 355. ISBN 978-1-4402-0389-3. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  5. ^ Peterson, Philip (23 June 2011). "How Did They Get Here?". Standard Catalog of Military Firearms: The Collector's Price and Reference Guide. Iola, Wisconsin: F+W Media. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-4402-2881-0. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  6. ^ world.guns.ru, Modern Firearms - Makarov PM, archived from the original on 2008-04-05, retrieved 2008-01-27
  7. ^ Galeotti, Mark (February 2017). The Modern Russian Army 1992–2016. Elite 217. Osprey Publishing. pp. 55–56. ISBN 9781472819086.
  8. ^ Hogg, Ian; Walter, John (29 August 2004). Pistols of the World. David & Charles. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-87349-460-1. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  9. ^ a b c Kinard, Jeff (2004). Pistols: An Illustrated History of Their Impact. ABC-CLIO. pp. 257, 259–260. ISBN 978-1-85109-470-7. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  10. ^ "Department of Justice Bureau of Firearms De-Certified Handgun Models" (PDF). ca.gov. Department of Justice Bureau of Firearms. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  11. ^ Cutshaw, Charles Q. (28 February 2011). Tactical Small Arms of the 21st Century: A Complete Guide to Small Arms From Around the World. Iola, Wisconsin: Gun Digest Books. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-4402-2709-7. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  12. ^ http://ria.ru/defense_safety/20150801/1157827137.html
  13. ^ world.guns.ru Quote: "almost immediately after the war the GAU issued a new set of requirements for a military and police pistol. These requirements asked for a compact, double action pistol of the Walther PP type...". Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  14. ^ ' "BAIKAL-442" Sporting Pistol (for export)' Archived 2009-08-31 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ Adam Luck (11 January 2009). "How the Baikal became Britain's favourite killing machine". Daily Mail. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 ion (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  17. ^ Albania: Special Operations and Counterterrorist Forces Archived 2013-08-22 at the Wayback Machine. at specialoperations.com (a non-official, personal website). Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  18. ^ Small Arms Survey (2007). "Armed Violence in Burundi: Conflict and Post-Conflict Bujumbura" (PDF). The Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City. Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-521-88039-8.
  19. ^ Kokalis, Peter. Weapons Tests And Evaluations: The Best Of Soldier Of Fortune. Paladin Press. 2001. pp99–102.
  20. ^ Hogg, Ian (2002). Jane's Guns Recognition Guide. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-00-712760-X.
  21. ^ "Urgent Fury 1983: WWII weapons encountered". wordpress.com. 18 October 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  22. ^ Small Arms Survey (2005). "Sourcing the Tools of War: Small Arms Supplies to Conflict Zones" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War. Oxford University Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-19-928085-8.
  23. ^ US Department of Defense: North Korea Country Handbook (1997) page xii, at Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  24. ^ "Google Sites". sites.google.com. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  25. ^ http://www.mo.gov.si/fileadmin/mo.gov.si/pageuploads/pdf/javne_objave/2015/orozje_2015/Sklopi1_8_za_objavo.pdf
  26. ^ a b Marchington, James (2004). The Encyclopedia of Handheld Weapons. Lewis International, Inc. ISBN 1-930983-14-X.
  27. ^ VCCorp.vn. "Quân đội Nhân dân Việt Nam được trang bị những loại súng ngắn nào". soha.vn. Retrieved 22 March 2018.

Bibliography[]

  • Datig, Fred A. (1988). The History and Development of Imperial and Soviet Russian Military Small Arms and Ammunition 1700–1986. Glenview, IL: Handgun Press. ISBN 9780945828037. OCLC 19742826.
  • Kokalis, Peter (2001). Weapons Tests and Evaluations: The Best of Soldier of Fortune. Boulder, Col.: Paladin Press. pp. 99–102. ISBN 978-1-58160-122-0. OCLC 49695650.

External links[]

en.wikibedia.ru

Makarov pistol

For other uses, see Makarov (disambiguation).

The PM (Pistolet Makarova, Russian: Пистолет Макарова) is a semi-automatic pistol design. Under the project leadership of Nikolay Fyodorovich Makarov, it became the Soviet Union's standard military side arm from 1951-1991.[1]

Development

The Makarov pistol resulted from a design competition for replacing the Tokarev TT-33 semi-automatic pistol and the Nagant M1895 revolver.[2] Rather than building a pistol to an existing cartridge in the Soviet inventory, Nikolai Makarov utilized essentially the "9mm Ultra" cartridge which had been designed by Carl Walther G.m.b.H. for the German Luftwaffe during the Second World War. Walther's cartridge became the 9x18mm Makarov. For simplicity and economy, the Makarov pistol - which was principally a scaled-up Walther PP - was of straight blowback operation, with the 9x18mm cartridge being the most powerful cartridge it could safely fire. Although the nominal calibre was 9.0mm, the actual bullet was 9.22mm in diameter, being shorter and wider and thus incompatible with pistols chambered for 9x19mm Parabellum cartridges. Consequently, Soviet ammunition was unusable in NATO firearms, and in the event of war NATO forces would be unable to use ammunition from Soviet sources.[3]

In 1951, the Pistol of Makarov (PM) was selected because of its simplicity (few moving parts), economy, easy manufacturing, and reasonable stopping power. It remained in wide front line service with Soviet military and police until the end of the U.S.S.R. in 1991 and beyond. Today, the Makarov is a popular handgun for concealed carry in the United States; variants of the pistol remain in production in Russia, China, and Bulgaria. In the U.S., surplus Soviet and East German military Makarovs are considered Curio & Relic eligible items by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, because the countries of manufacture, the U.S.S.R. and the G.D.R., no longer exist.

Since 2003, the Makarov PM was formally replaced by the Yarygin PYa pistol in Russian service,[2] although as of 2011 large numbers of Makarov PMs are still in Russian Military and Police service. The Makarov PM is still the service pistol of many Eastern European and former Soviet Republics. China and North Korea also use Makarov PMs.

Design

The Pistol Makarova (PM) is a medium-size, straight blowback action, frame-fixed barrel handgun. In blowback designs, the only force holding the slide closed is that of the recoil spring; upon firing, the barrel and slide do not have to unlock, as do locked-breech design pistols. Blowback designs are simple and more accurate than designs using a recoiling, tilting, or articulated barrel, but they are limited practically by the weight of the slide. The 9x18mm cartridge is a practical cartridge in blowback-operated pistols; producing a respectable level of energy from a gun of moderate weight and size. The PM is heavy for its size by modern US commercial handgun standards, largely because in a blowback pistol the heavy slide provides greater inertia to delay opening of the breech until internal pressures have fallen to a safe level. Other, more powerful cartridges have been used in blowback pistol designs, but the Makarov is widely regarded as particularly well balanced in its design elements. The Astra 600, chambered for 9mm Parabellum is a much older blowback pistol design than the Makarov, and fired a much more powerful cartridge. The US firm HiPoint currently manufactures large, heavy blowback pistols in even more powerful chamberings, including the .45 ACP.

The PM has a free-floating firing pin, with no firing pin spring or firing pin block. This allows for the possibility of accidentally firing if the pistol is dropped on its muzzle. Designer Makarov thought the firing pin of insufficient mass to constitute a major danger. The Makarov is notable for the safety elements of its design, with a safety that simultaneously blocks the hammer from contacting the firing pin and returns the weapon to the long-trigger-pull mode of double action when that safety is engaged. This is one of number of different types of safety mechanism generally referred to as "manual safety" in order to distinguish it from safeties that are disengaged by the user in the course of firing a gun without manipulation of separate safety controls. This type safety in the form of a slide mounted lever has some safety advantages points that the extra step to operate it may be of benefit in certain situations, although there is an arguement over whether if that extra stop can also be a risk. The extra manipulation requirement can be a risk, especially when the slide mounted lever type is not positioned in ergonomic manner. Small Walther pistol(such as PPK) is one example of the case, and Makarov is very similar in configuration with such pistols.[4]

When handled properly, the Makarov has excellent security against the possibility of accidental discharge caused by inadvertent pressure placed upon the trigger (such as in the acts of carrying the weapon in dense brush or re-holstering it). The Bulgarian-model Makarov is even government-approved for sale in the U.S. state of California, having passed a state DOJ-mandated drop-safety test. The PM's notable features are its simplicity and economy of parts; many do more than one task, e.g. the trigger guard is also the take down lever, the one piece slide stop is also the ejector and the sear spring also is the slide stop (and ejector) return spring. Similarly, the mainspring powers the hammer, and the trigger, while its lower end is the heel (European) style magazine catch. Makarov pistol parts seldom break with normal usage, and are easily replaced using few tools.

In addition to simplicity, the pistol is, unlike the TT-33, easily field stripped and reassembled (including removing the firing pin) without any tools; no more than a minute is required.

Operation

The Makarov has a DA/SA (double-action, single-action) operating system. After loading and charging the pistol by pulling back the slide, it can be carried with the hammer down and the safety engaged. To fire, the slide-mounted safety lever is pushed down to the "fire" position, after which the shooter squeezes the trigger to fire the gun. The action of squeezing the trigger for the first shot also cocks the hammer, an action requiring a long, strong squeeze of the trigger. The firing and cycling of the action re-cocks the hammer for subsequent shooting; fired single action with a short, light trigger squeeze. The PM's operation is semi-automatic, firing as quickly as the shooter can squeeze the trigger. Spent cartridges are ejected to the shooter's right and rear, some 18–20 feet away. When the safety is engaged,the hammer drops from the cocked position. The safety lever has a notch that blocks the hammer from striking the firing pin. This is the only safe way to lower the hammer.

The PM's standard magazine holds 8 rounds. After firing the last round, the slide locks open. After inserting a loaded magazine, the slide is closed by activating a lever on the left side of the frame or by withdrawing it to release the slide catch; either action loads a cartridge to the chamber.

When engaged, the PM's safety lever switch blocks the hammer from striking the rear end of the firing pin. The magazine release is on the heel of the handgrip. This is designed to avoid its snagging in clothes, and the accidental, premature release of the magazine.

Variants

Highly customized version of the Russian Makarov PM showing muzzle flash.

The Makarov was manufactured in several communist countries during the Cold War and afterwards; apart from the USSR itself, they were East Germany, Bulgaria, China and post-unification Germany, which also found itself with several thousand ex-GDR Makarov pistols.

The most widely known variant, the Makarov PMM, was a redesign of the original gun. In 1990, a group of engineers reworked the original Makarov, primarily by increasing the load for the cartridge. The result was a significant increase in muzzle velocity,[citation needed] and generated 25% more gas pressure. This magazine also holds 12 rounds, compared to the PM's 8 rounds. Versions that held 10 rounds were also produced in greater quantities than the 12-round magazine. The Makarov PMM is able to use existing Makarov cartridges and has other minor modifications such as an improved hand grip as well as threaded grooves in the chamber.[citation needed]

During the 1990s, the Russian Firearms manufacturer Baikal marketed various Makarov handguns in the United States under the IJ-70 model. Included were handguns in both standard and high capacity frames. They were available in .380 ACP in addition to the standard 9 mm Makarov round. Some minor modifications were made to facilitate importation into the United States, including the replacement of the rear fixed sight with a low-quality adjustable sight (only these Russian models marketed abroad feature an adjustable sight). It is unlikely that more will be imported in the near future due to voluntary agreements restricting the importation of small arms from Russia. Also no longer importable is the Baikal MP645K air pistol, which is known in shooting and collecting circles as the "Air Mak". It fires .177 (4.5 mm) BB's propelled by CO2, with extreme realism, including a double action trigger mechanism. The CO2 cartridge is housed in a modified double stack Makarov magazine, and the frame is the same as that of a double stack Makarov. The pistol is still available in the United Kingdom and various other nations in Europe and elsewhere. Despite the ban on importation, some "Air Maks" are still available on the secondhand market. Due to the fixed supply, prices have more than doubled since importation ceased.[citation needed]

A sporting version of Makarov by Baikal is Baikal-442.[5]

A silenced version of the Makarov, the PB, was developed for use by reconnaissance groups and the KGB, with an integral suppressor.

Countries like India, Poland and Hungary have developed their own handgun designs that use the 9x18mm round. Hungary developed the FEG PA-63 and Poland has developed the P-64 and the P-83 Wanad. While similar in appearance to the PM, and chambered for the same round, these 9 mm Makarov firing pistols are often found labeled at gun shows by some US gun retailers as "Polish Makarovs" and "Hungarian Makarovs". Nonetheless, these similar designs are independent of the PM and have more in common with the Walther PP (which, in fact, was also a major influence on the original Russian Makarov).

A wide variety of aftermarket additions and replacements exist for the Makarov, including but not limited to: replacement barrels, custom grips, custom finishes and larger sights with various properties to replace the notoriously small originals. A scope/light mount exists for the Makarov but requires a threaded replacement barrel.

Users

Bibliography

  • The History and Development of Imperial and Soviet Russian Military Small Arms and Ammunition 1700-1986 written by Fred A. DATIG (Handgun Press - 1988)
  • Kokalis, Peter (2001). Weapons Tests And Evaluations: The Best Of Soldier Of Fortune. Boulder, Colorado, USA: Paladin Press. ISBN 978-1-58160-122-0. 

References

  1. ^ Makarov.com, Makarov Basics, http://www.makarov.com/makbasics.html, retrieved 2008-01-27 
  2. ^ a b world.guns.ru, Modern Firearms - Makarov PM, http://world.guns.ru/handguns/hg21-e.htm, retrieved 2008-01-27 
  3. ^ www.saami.org, Unsafe Arms and Ammunition combinations, http://www.saami.org/Unsafe_Combinations.cfm, retrieved 2008-03-29 
  4. ^ The Gun Digest Book of Combat Handgunnery 6th Edition, Massad Ayoob 
  5. ^ ' "BAIKAL-442" Sporting Pistol (for export)'
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0710628695.
  7. ^ http://www.specialoperations.com/Foreign/Albania/Default.htm
  8. ^ Kokalis, Peter. Weapons Tests And Evaluations: The Best Of Soldier Of Fortune. Paladin Press. 2001. pp99–102.
  9. ^ Hogg, Ian (2002). Jane's Guns Recognition Guide. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-00-712760-X.
  10. ^ http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/dprk/nkor.pdf
  11. ^ a b Marchington, James (2004). The Encyclopedia of Handheld Weapons. Lewis International, Inc. ISBN 1-930983-14-X.

External links

dal.academic.ru

WikiZero - Makarov pistol

open wikipedia design.

The Makarov pistol or PM (Russian: Пистолет Макарова, Pistolet Makarova, literally Makarov's Pistol) is a Russian semi-automatic pistol. Under the project leadership of Nikolay Fyodorovich Makarov, it became the Soviet Union's standard military and police side arm in 1951.[4]

Development[edit]

Shortly after the Second World War, the Soviet Union reactivated its plans to replace the Tokarev TT33 self-loading pistols and Nagant M1895 revolvers. The adoption of the future AK assault rifle relegated the pistol to a light, handy self-defence weapon. Therefore, the TT30/33 was unsuited for such a role, as it was heavy and bulky. Also, the Tokarev pistols omitted a safety and magazines were deemed too easy to lose. As a result, in December 1945, two separate contests for a new service pistol were created, respectively for a 7.62mm and 9mm pistol. It was later judged that the new 9.2×18mm cartridge, designed by B. V. Semin, was the best round suited for the intended role. The lower pressures of the cartridge allowed practical straight blowback operation (reducing the cost and complexity of the weapon), while retaining low recoil and good stopping power.

Several engineers took part in the contest, including Korovin, Baryshev, Vojvodin, Simonov, Rakov, Klimov, Lobanov, Sevryugin and Makarov. Special emphasis was placed on safety, user-friendliness, accuracy, weight, and dimensions. After stringent handling, reliability, and other tests, Makarov's pistol, which was inspired from the German Walther PP,[5][6] stood out from other designs through its sheer simplicity, excellent reliability, quick disassembly, and robustness. During April 1948, Makarov's pistol experienced 20 times fewer malfunctions than the competing Baryshev and Sevryugin counterparts, and had fewer parts. The pistol was therefore selected in 1949 for further development and optimization for mass production. Tooling was set up in the Izhevsk plant for production. After many major design changes and tweaks, the gun was formally adopted as the "9mm Pistolet Makarova", or "PM" in December 1951.

As the new standard issue sidearm of the USSR, the PM was issued to NCOs, police, special forces, and tank and air crews. It remained in wide front-line service with Soviet military and police until and beyond the end of the USSR in 1991. Variants of the pistol remain in production in Russia, China, and Bulgaria. In the U.S., surplus Soviet and East German military Makarovs are listed as eligible curio and relic items by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, because the countries of manufacture, the USSR and the GDR, no longer exist.[7]

In 2003, the Makarov PM was formally replaced by the PYa pistol in Russian service,[8] although as of 2016[update], large numbers of Makarov pistols are still in Russian military and police service.[9] The PM is still the service pistol of many Eastern European and former Soviet republics. North Korea and Vietnam also use PMs as standard-issue pistols.[10]

The PM is a medium-size, straight-blowback-action, all-steel construction, frame-fixed barrel handgun. In blowback designs, the only force holding the slide closed is that of the recoil spring; upon firing, the barrel and slide do not have to unlock, as do locked-breech-design pistols. Blowback designs are simple and more accurate than designs using a recoiling, tilting, or articulated barrel, but they are limited practically by the weight of the slide. The 9×18mm cartridge is a practical cartridge in blowback-operated pistols; producing a respectable level of energy

www.wikizero.com

Makarov Pistol

How a Makarov pistol works

The Makarov pistol or PM (Russian: Пистолет Макарова, Pistolet Makarova, literally Makarov's Pistol) is a Russian semi-automatic pistol. Under the project leadership of Nikolay Fyodorovich Makarov, it became the Soviet Union's standard military and police side arm from 1951 to 1991. Shortly after the Second World War, the Soviet Union reactivated its plans to replace the Tokarev TT33 self-loading pistols and Nagant M1895 revolvers. The adoption of the future AK assault rifle relegated the pistol to a light, handy self-defence weapon. Therefore, the TT30/33 was unsuited for such a role, as it was heavy, bulky, and possessed too little stopping power. What's more, the Tokarev pistols omitted a safety and magazines were deemed too easy to lose. As a result, in December 1945, two separate contests for a new service pistol were created, respectively for a 7.62mm and 9mm pistol. It was later judged that the new 9.2x18mm cartridge, designed by B.V. Semin, was the best round suited for the intended role. The lower pressures of the cartridge allowed practical straight blowback operation (reducing the cost and complexity of the weapon), while retaining low recoil and good stopping power. Several engineers took part in the contest, including Korovin, Baryshev, Vojvodin, Simonov, Rakov, Klimov, Lobanov, Sevryugin and Makarov. Special emphasis was placed on safety, user-friendliness, accuracy, weight, and dimensions. After stringent handling, reliability, and other tests, Makarov's pistol, which was based on the German Walther PP, stood out from other designs through its sheer simplicity, excellent reliability, quick disassembly. and robustness. During April 1948, Makarov's pistol experienced 20 times fewer malfunctions than the competing Baryshev and Sevryugin counterparts, and had fewer parts. The pistol was therefore selected in 1949 for further development and optimization for mass production. Tooling was set up in the Izhevsk plant for production. After many major design changes and tweaks, the gun was formally adopted as the "Pistolet Makarova", or "PM" in 1951. As the new standard issue sidearm of the USSR, the PM was issued to NCOs, police,special forces, and tank and air crews. It remained in wide front-line service with Soviet military and police until and beyond the end of the USSR in 1991. Variants of the pistol remain in production in Russia, China, and Bulgaria. In the U.S., surplus Soviet and East German military Makarovs are listed as eligible curio and relic items by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, because the countries of manufacture, the USSR and the GDR, no longer exist. In 2003, the Makarov PM was formally replaced by the Yarygin PYa pistol in Russian service, although as of 2012, large numbers of Makarov PMs are still in Russian military and police service. The Makarov PM is still the service pistol of many Eastern European and former Soviet republics. North Korea and Vietnam also use Makarov PMs as standard-issue pistols. Makarov pistol: full disassembly & assembly https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KGsVnLYBTEI https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makarov_pistol This video was made with the help of the game World of Guns: Gun Disassembly: http://store.steampowered.com/app/262410/

wn.com

Makarov pistol - Gpedia, Your Encyclopedia

The Makarov pistol or PM (Russian: Пистолет Макарова, Pistolet Makarova, literally Makarov's Pistol) is a Russian semi-automatic pistol. Under the project leadership of Nikolay Fyodorovich Makarov, it became the Soviet Union's standard military and police side arm in 1951.[4]

Development

Shortly after the Second World War, the Soviet Union reactivated its plans to replace the Tokarev TT33 self-loading pistols and Nagant M1895 revolvers. The adoption of the future AK assault rifle relegated the pistol to a light, handy self-defence weapon. Therefore, the TT30/33 was unsuited for such a role, as it was heavy and bulky. Also, the Tokarev pistols omitted a safety and magazines were deemed too easy to lose. As a result, in December 1945, two separate contests for a new service pistol were created, respectively for a 7.62mm and 9mm pistol. It was later judged that the new 9.2×18mm cartridge, designed by B. V. Semin, was the best round suited for the intended role. The lower pressures of the cartridge allowed practical straight blowback operation (reducing the cost and complexity of the weapon), while retaining low recoil and good stopping power.

Several engineers took part in the contest, including Korovin, Baryshev, Vojvodin, Simonov, Rakov, Klimov, Lobanov, Sevryugin and Makarov. Special emphasis was placed on safety, user-friendliness, accuracy, weight, and dimensions. After stringent handling, reliability, and other tests, Makarov's pistol, which was inspired from the German Walther PP,[5][6] stood out from other designs through its sheer simplicity, excellent reliability, quick disassembly, and robustness. During April 1948, Makarov's pistol experienced 20 times fewer malfunctions than the competing Baryshev and Sevryugin counterparts, and had fewer parts. The pistol was therefore selected in 1949 for further development and optimization for mass production. Tooling was set up in the Izhevsk plant for production. After many major design changes and tweaks, the gun was formally adopted as the "9mm Pistolet Makarova", or "PM" in December 1951.

As the new standard issue sidearm of the USSR, the PM was issued to NCOs, police, special forces, and tank and air crews. It remained in wide front-line service with Soviet military and police until and beyond the end of the USSR in 1991. Variants of the pistol remain in production in Russia, China, and Bulgaria. In the U.S., surplus Soviet and East German military Makarovs are listed as eligible curio and relic items by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, because the countries of manufacture, the USSR and the GDR, no longer exist.[7]

In 2003, the Makarov PM was formally replaced by the PYa pistol in Russian service,[8] although as of 2016[update], large numbers of Makarov pistols are still in Russian military and police service.[9] The PM is still the service pistol of many Eastern European and former Soviet republics. North Korea and Vietnam also use PMs as standard-issue pistols.[10]

Design

The PM is a medium-size, straight-blowback-action, all-steel construction, frame-fixed barrel handgun. In blowback designs, the only force holding the slide closed is that of the recoil spring; upon firing, the barrel and slide do not have to unlock, as do locked-breech-design pistols. Blowback designs are simple and more accurate than designs using a recoiling, tilting, or articulated barrel, but they are limited practically by the weight of the slide. The 9×18mm cartridge is a practical cartridge in blowback-operated pistols; producing a respectable level of energy from a gun of moderate weight and size. The PM is heavy for its size by modern US commercial handgun standards, largely because in a blowback pistol, the heavy slide provides greater inertia to delay opening of the breech until internal pressures have fallen to a safe level. Other, more powerful cartridges have been used in blowback pistol designs, but the Makarov is widely regarded as particularly well balanced in its design elements.[11]

The general layout and field-strip procedure of the Makarov pistol is similar to that of the PP.[11] However, designer N.Makarov and his team drastically simplified the construction of the pistol, improving reliability and reducing the part count to an astonishing 27, not including the magazine. This allowed considerable ease of manufacture and servicing. All of the individual parts of the PM have been optimised for mass production, robustness and interchangeability, partially thanks to captured German tooling, technology, and machinery.

The chrome-lined, four-groove, 9.27mm caliber barrel is pressed and pinned to the frame through a precision-machined ring. The 7 kg recoil spring wraps around and is guided by the barrel. The spring-loaded trigger guard is pivoted down and swung to either side on the frame, allowing removal of the slide. The front sight is integrally machined into the slide, and a 3–4 mm wide textured strip is engraved on top of the slide in order to prevent aim-disturbing glare. The rear sight is dovetailed into the slide and multiple heights are available to adjust the impact point. The extractor is of an external spring-loaded type, and features a prominent flange preventing loss if a case should rupture. The breech face is deeply recessed in order to aid in extraction and ejection reliability. The stamped sheet steel slide-lock lever has a tail serving the purpose of ejector. The one-piece, wraparound bakelite or plastic grip is reinforced with steel inserts and has a detent inside the screw bushing preventing unscrewing during firing. The sheet-metal mainspring housed inside the grip panel powers the hammer in both the main and rebound stroke, the trigger and the disconnector, while its lower end is the heel and spring of the magazine catch. The sear spring also serves another function, powering the slide lock lever. Makarov pistol parts seldom break with normal usage, and are easily serviced using few tools.[11]

The PM has a free-floating triangular firing pin, with no firing pin spring or firing pin block. This theoretically allows the possibility of accidental firing if the pistol is dropped on its muzzle. Designer Nikolay Makarov thought the firing pin of insufficient mass to constitute a major danger. The Makarov pistol is notable for the safety elements of its design, with a safety lever that simultaneously decocks and blocks the hammer from contacting the firing pin and returns the weapon to the long-trigger-pull mode of double action when that safety is engaged. When handled properly, the Makarov pistol has excellent security against accidental discharge caused by inadvertent pressure on the trigger, e.g., in carrying the weapon in dense brush or re-holstering it. However, the heavy trigger weight in double-action mode decreases first-shot accuracy. The Bulgarian-model Makarov pistol was approved for sale in the US state of California, having passed a state-mandated drop-safety test though the certification was not renewed and it has since been removed from the roster of approved handguns.[12]

Operation

The PM has a DA/SA trigger mechanism. Engaging the manual safety simultaneously decocks the hammer if cocked, and prevents movement of slide, trigger and hammer. Both carrying with safety engaged, or with safety disengaged and hammer uncocked are considered safe. The DA trigger pull is heavy, requiring a strong squeeze, trading first shot accuracy for safety. Racking the slide, manually cocking the hammer or firing a cartridge all cock the hammer, setting the trigger for the next shot to single action. The PM is a semi-automatic firearm, therefore its rate of fire depends on how rapidly the shooter squeezes the trigger. Spent cartridges are ejected some 5.5–6 meters away to the shooter's right and rear. After firing the last round, the slide is held back by the slide stop lever/ejector. Magazines can be removed from the gun via the heel release, located on the bottom of the grip. After loading a fresh magazine, the slide can be released by pressing the lever on the left side of the frame or by racking the slide and releasing it; either action loads a cartridge into the chamber and readies the pistol to fire again.

Variants

Parkerized and dura-painted Makarov PM. Russian production.

The Makarov pistol was manufactured in several communist countries during the Cold War and afterwards; apart from the USSR itself, they were East Germany, Bulgaria, China, and post-reunification Germany, which also found itself with several thousand ex-GDR Makarov pistols.

The most widely known variant, the PMM (Pistolet Makarova Modernizirovannyy or Modernised Makarov pistol), was a redesign of the original gun. In 1990, a group of engineers reworked the original design, primarily by increasing the load for the cartridge. The result is a significant increase in muzzle velocity and generation of 25% more gas pressure. The PMM magazine holds 12 rounds, compared to the PM's eight rounds. Versions that held ten rounds were produced in greater quantities than the 12-round magazine. The PMM is able to use existing 9.2×18mm PM cartridges and has other minor modifications such as more ergonomic grip panels as well as flutes in the chamber that aid in extraction.[13] As of 2015, it is—alongside MP-443 Grach—the service pistol of the Russian Airborne Troops.[14]

A silenced version of the Makarov pistol, the PB, was developed for use by reconnaissance groups and the KGB, with a dedicated detachable suppressor.

An experimental variant of the Makarov pistol, the TKB-023, was designed with a polymer frame to reduce the weight and costs of the weapon. It had passed Soviet military trials but was never fielded, due to concerns about the polymer's capacities for long-term storage and use.

Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia have developed their own handgun designs chambering the 9×18mm round. Hungary developed the FEG PA-63, Poland the P-64 and the P-83 Wanad and Czechoslovakia the vz.82. While similar in operation (straight blowback), and chambered for the same round, these pistols are often found labeled at gun shows by some US gun retailers as "Polish Makarovs" and "Hungarian Makarovs". Nonetheless, these cosmetically similar designs are independent of the PM and have more in common with the Walther PP (which, in fact, was also a major influence on the original Russian Makarov [15]).

A wide variety of aftermarket additions and replacements exist for the Makarov pistol, including replacement barrels, custom grips, custom finishes and larger sights with various properties to replace the notoriously small originals. A scope/light mount exists for the Makarov pistol but requires a threaded replacement barrel.

Baikal

Baikal is a brand developed by IGP around which a series of shotgun products were designed from 1962. After the collapse of the USSR, commercial gun manufacture was greatly expanded under the Baikal brand.

During the 1990s, Baikal marketed various Makarov-derived handguns in the United States under the IJ-70 model. Included were handguns in both standard and high-capacity frames. They were available in .380 ACP in addition to the standard 9 mm Makarov round. Some minor modifications were made to facilitate importation into the United States, including the replacement of the rear fixed sight with an adjustable sight (only these Russian models marketed abroad feature an adjustable sight). A sporting version is the Baikal-442.[16] The importation of these commercial models into the U.S. was later further restricted with the U.S. Government's importation ban on Russian firearms.

The Baikal IZH-79-8 is a modified version of the standard Makarov pistol, with an 8 mm barrel, modified to allow it to fire gas cartridges. These guns proved popular after the fall of the USSR, and were used in Eastern Europe for personal protection. However, unlike most gas firing guns, the body is made of standard Makarov-specification steel, and hence this gun is popular with criminals due to its low cost of purchase and ease of boring out to fire standard 9 mm rounds.[17]

Users

See also

References

  1. ^ Small Arms Survey (2012). "Surveying the Battlefield: Illicit Arms In Afghanistan, Iraq, and Somalia" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets. Cambridge University Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-521-19714-4.
  2. ^ Makarov.com, Makarov Basics, retrieved 2008-01-27
  3. ^ Dowling, Timothy C. (2015). Russia at War. ABC CLIO. p. 496. ISBN 978-1-59884-947-9. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  4. ^ Sweeney, Patrick (2009). Gunsmithing - Pistols and Revolvers. GunDigest Books. p. 355. ISBN 978-1-4402-0389-3. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  5. ^ Peterson, Philip (23 June 2011). "How Did They Get Here?". Standard Catalog of Military Firearms: The Collector's Price and Reference Guide. Iola, Wisconsin: F+W Media. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-4402-2881-0. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  6. ^ world.guns.ru, Modern Firearms - Makarov PM, archived from the original on 2008-04-05, retrieved 2008-01-27
  7. ^ Galeotti, Mark (February 2017). The Modern Russian Army 1992–2016. Elite 217. Osprey Publishing. pp. 55–56. ISBN 9781472819086.
  8. ^ Hogg, Ian; Walter, John (29 August 2004). Pistols of the World. David & Charles. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-87349-460-1. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  9. ^ a b c Kinard, Jeff (2004). Pistols: An Illustrated History of Their Impact. ABC-CLIO. pp. 257, 259–260. ISBN 978-1-85109-470-7. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  10. ^ "Department of Justice Bureau of Firearms De-Certified Handgun Models" (PDF). ca.gov. Department of Justice Bureau of Firearms. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  11. ^ Cutshaw, Charles Q. (28 February 2011). Tactical Small Arms of the 21st Century: A Complete Guide to Small Arms From Around the World. Iola, Wisconsin: Gun Digest Books. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-4402-2709-7. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  12. ^ http://ria.ru/defense_safety/20150801/1157827137.html
  13. ^ world.guns.ru Quote: "almost immediately after the war the GAU issued a new set of requirements for a military and police pistol. These requirements asked for a compact, double action pistol of the Walther PP type...". Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  14. ^ ' "BAIKAL-442" Sporting Pistol (for export)' Archived 2009-08-31 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ Adam Luck (11 January 2009). "How the Baikal became Britain's favourite killing machine". Daily Mail. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  17. ^ Albania: Special Operations and Counterterrorist Forces Archived 2013-08-22 at the Wayback Machine. at specialoperations.com (a non-official, personal website). Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  18. ^ Small Arms Survey (2007). "Armed Violence in Burundi: Conflict and Post-Conflict Bujumbura" (PDF). The Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City. Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-521-88039-8.
  19. ^ Kokalis, Peter. Weapons Tests And Evaluations: The Best Of Soldier Of Fortune. Paladin Press. 2001. pp99–102.
  20. ^ Hogg, Ian (2002). Jane's Guns Recognition Guide. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-00-712760-X.
  21. ^ "Urgent Fury 1983: WWII weapons encountered". wordpress.com. 18 October 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  22. ^ Small Arms Survey (2005). "Sourcing the Tools of War: Small Arms Supplies to Conflict Zones" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War. Oxford University Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-19-928085-8.
  23. ^ US Department of Defense: North Korea Country Handbook (1997) page xii, at Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  24. ^ "Google Sites". sites.google.com. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  25. ^ http://www.mo.gov.si/fileadmin/mo.gov.si/pageuploads/pdf/javne_objave/2015/orozje_2015/Sklopi1_8_za_objavo.pdf
  26. ^ a b Marchington, James (2004). The Encyclopedia of Handheld Weapons. Lewis International, Inc. ISBN 1-930983-14-X.
  27. ^ VCCorp.vn. "Quân đội Nhân dân Việt Nam được trang bị những loại súng ngắn nào". soha.vn. Retrieved 22 March 2018.

Bibliography

  • Datig, Fred A. (1988). The History and Development of Imperial and Soviet Russian Military Small Arms and Ammunition 1700–1986. Glenview, IL: Handgun Press. ISBN 9780945828037. OCLC 19742826.
  • Kokalis, Peter (2001). Weapons Tests and Evaluations: The Best of Soldier of Fortune. Boulder, Col.: Paladin Press. pp. 99–102. ISBN 978-1-58160-122-0. OCLC 49695650.

External links

www.gpedia.com

Makarov pistol - Howling Pixel

The Makarov pistol or PM (Russian: Пистолет Макарова, Pistolet Makarova, literally Makarov's Pistol) is a Russian semi-automatic pistol. Under the project leadership of Nikolay Fyodorovich Makarov, it became the Soviet Union's standard military and police side arm in 1951.[4]

Development

Shortly after the Second World War, the Soviet Union reactivated its plans to replace the Tokarev TT33 self-loading pistols and Nagant M1895 revolvers. The adoption of the future AK assault rifle relegated the pistol to a light, handy self-defence weapon. Therefore, the TT30/33 was unsuited for such a role, as it was heavy and bulky. Also, the Tokarev pistols omitted a safety and magazines were deemed too easy to lose. As a result, in December 1945, two separate contests for a new service pistol were created, respectively for a 7.62mm and 9mm pistol. It was later judged that the new 9.2×18mm cartridge, designed by B. V. Semin, was the best round suited for the intended role. The lower pressures of the cartridge allowed practical straight blowback operation (reducing the cost and complexity of the weapon), while retaining low recoil and good stopping power.

Several engineers took part in the contest, including Korovin, Baryshev, Vojvodin, Simonov, Rakov, Klimov, Lobanov, Sevryugin and Makarov. Special emphasis was placed on safety, user-friendliness, accuracy, weight, and dimensions. After stringent handling, reliability, and other tests, Makarov's pistol, which was inspired from the German Walther PP,[5][6] stood out from other designs through its sheer simplicity, excellent reliability, quick disassembly, and robustness. During April 1948, Makarov's pistol experienced 20 times fewer malfunctions than the competing Baryshev and Sevryugin counterparts, and had fewer parts. The pistol was therefore selected in 1949 for further development and optimization for mass production. Tooling was set up in the Izhevsk plant for production. After many major design changes and tweaks, the gun was formally adopted as the "9mm Pistolet Makarova", or "PM" in December 1951.

As the new standard issue sidearm of the USSR, the PM was issued to NCOs, police, special forces, and tank and air crews. It remained in wide front-line service with Soviet military and police until and beyond the end of the USSR in 1991. Variants of the pistol remain in production in Russia, China, and Bulgaria. In the U.S., surplus Soviet and East German military Makarovs are listed as eligible curio and relic items by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, because the countries of manufacture, the USSR and the GDR, no longer exist.[7]

In 2003, the Makarov PM was formally replaced by the PYa pistol in Russian service,[8] although as of 2016, large numbers of Makarov pistols are still in Russian military and police service.[9] The PM is still the service pistol of many Eastern European and former Soviet republics. North Korea and Vietnam also use PMs as standard-issue pistols.[10]

Design

The PM is a medium-size, straight-blowback-action, all-steel construction, frame-fixed barrel handgun. In blowback designs, the only force holding the slide closed is that of the recoil spring; upon firing, the barrel and slide do not have to unlock, as do locked-breech-design pistols. Blowback designs are simple and more accurate than designs using a recoiling, tilting, or articulated barrel, but they are limited practically by the weight of the slide. The 9×18mm cartridge is a practical cartridge in blowback-operated pistols; producing a respectable level of energy from a gun of moderate weight and size. The PM is heavy for its size by modern US commercial handgun standards, largely because in a blowback pistol, the heavy slide provides greater inertia to delay opening of the breech until internal pressures have fallen to a safe level. Other, more powerful cartridges have been used in blowback pistol designs, but the Makarov is widely regarded as particularly well balanced in its design elements.[11]

The general layout and field-strip procedure of the Makarov pistol is similar to that of the PP.[11] However, designer N.Makarov and his team drastically simplified the construction of the pistol, improving reliability and reducing the part count to an astonishing 27, not including the magazine. This allowed considerable ease of manufacture and servicing. All of the individual parts of the PM have been optimised for mass production, robustness and interchangeability, partially thanks to captured German tooling, technology, and machinery.

The chrome-lined, four-groove, 9.27mm caliber barrel is pressed and pinned to the frame through a precision-machined ring. The 7 kg recoil spring wraps around and is guided by the barrel. The spring-loaded trigger guard is pivoted down and swung to either side on the frame, allowing removal of the slide. The front sight is integrally machined into the slide, and a 3–4 mm wide textured strip is engraved on top of the slide in order to prevent aim-disturbing glare. The rear sight is dovetailed into the slide and multiple heights are available to adjust the impact point. The extractor is of an external spring-loaded type, and features a prominent flange preventing loss if a case should rupture. The breech face is deeply recessed in order to aid in extraction and ejection reliability. The stamped sheet steel slide-lock lever has a tail serving the purpose of ejector. The one-piece, wraparound bakelite or plastic grip is reinforced with steel inserts and has a detent inside the screw bushing preventing unscrewing during firing. The sheet-metal mainspring housed inside the grip panel powers the hammer in both the main and rebound stroke, the trigger and the disconnector, while its lower end is the heel and spring of the magazine catch. The sear spring also serves another function, powering the slide lock lever. Makarov pistol parts seldom break with normal usage, and are easily serviced using few tools.[11]

The PM has a free-floating triangular firing pin, with no firing pin spring or firing pin block. This theoretically allows the possibility of accidental firing if the pistol is dropped on its muzzle. Designer Nikolay Makarov thought the firing pin of insufficient mass to constitute a major danger. The Makarov pistol is notable for the safety elements of its design, with a safety lever that simultaneously decocks and blocks the hammer from contacting the firing pin and returns the weapon to the long-trigger-pull mode of double action when that safety is engaged. When handled properly, the Makarov pistol has excellent security against accidental discharge caused by inadvertent pressure on the trigger, e.g., in carrying the weapon in dense brush or re-holstering it. However, the heavy trigger weight in double-action mode decreases first-shot accuracy. The Bulgarian-model Makarov pistol was approved for sale in the US state of California, having passed a state-mandated drop-safety test though the certification was not renewed and it has since been removed from the roster of approved handguns.[12]

Operation

The PM has a DA/SA trigger mechanism. Engaging the manual safety simultaneously decocks the hammer if cocked, and prevents movement of slide, trigger and hammer. Both carrying with safety engaged, or with safety disengaged and hammer uncocked are considered safe. The DA trigger pull is heavy, requiring a strong squeeze, trading first shot accuracy for safety. Racking the slide, manually cocking the hammer or firing a cartridge all cock the hammer, setting the trigger for the next shot to single action. The PM is a semi-automatic firearm, therefore its rate of fire depends on how rapidly the shooter squeezes the trigger. Spent cartridges are ejected some 5.5–6 meters away to the shooter's right and rear. After firing the last round, the slide is held back by the slide stop lever/ejector. Magazines can be removed from the gun via the heel release, located on the bottom of the grip. After loading a fresh magazine, the slide can be released by pressing the lever on the left side of the frame or by racking the slide and releasing it; either action loads a cartridge into the chamber and readies the pistol to fire again.

Variants

The Makarov pistol was manufactured in several communist countries during the Cold War and afterwards; apart from the USSR itself, they were East Germany, Bulgaria, China, and post-reunification Germany, which also found itself with several thousand ex-GDR Makarov pistols.

The most widely known variant, the PMM (Pistolet Makarova Modernizirovannyy or Modernised Makarov pistol), was a redesign of the original gun. In 1990, a group of engineers reworked the original design, primarily by increasing the load for the cartridge. The result is a significant increase in muzzle velocity and generation of 25% more gas pressure. The PMM magazine holds 12 rounds, compared to the PM's eight rounds. Versions that held ten rounds were produced in greater quantities than the 12-round magazine. The PMM is able to use existing 9.2×18mm PM cartridges and has other minor modifications such as more ergonomic grip panels as well as flutes in the chamber that aid in extraction.[13] As of 2015, it is—alongside MP-443 Grach—the service pistol of the Russian Airborne Troops.[14]

A silenced version of the Makarov pistol, the PB, was developed for use by reconnaissance groups and the KGB, with a dedicated detachable suppressor.

An experimental variant of the Makarov pistol, the TKB-023, was designed with a polymer frame to reduce the weight and costs of the weapon. It had passed Soviet military trials but was never fielded, due to concerns about the polymer's capacities for long-term storage and use.

Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia have developed their own handgun designs chambering the 9×18mm round. Hungary developed the FEG PA-63, Poland the P-64 and the P-83 Wanad and Czechoslovakia the vz.82. While similar in operation (straight blowback), and chambered for the same round, these pistols are often found labeled at gun shows by some US gun retailers as "Polish Makarovs" and "Hungarian Makarovs". Nonetheless, these cosmetically similar designs are independent of the PM and have more in common with the Walther PP (which, in fact, was also a major influence on the original Russian Makarov [15]).

A wide variety of aftermarket additions and replacements exist for the Makarov pistol, including replacement barrels, custom grips, custom finishes and larger sights with various properties to replace the notoriously small originals. A scope/light mount exists for the Makarov pistol but requires a threaded replacement barrel.

Baikal

Baikal is a brand developed by IGP around which a series of shotgun products were designed from 1962. After the collapse of the USSR, commercial gun manufacture was greatly expanded under the Baikal brand.

During the 1990s, Baikal marketed various Makarov-derived handguns in the United States under the IJ-70 model. Included were handguns in both standard and high-capacity frames. They were available in .380 ACP in addition to the standard 9 mm Makarov round. Some minor modifications were made to facilitate importation into the United States, including the replacement of the rear fixed sight with an adjustable sight (only these Russian models marketed abroad feature an adjustable sight). A sporting version is the Baikal-442.[16] The importation of these commercial models into the U.S. was later further restricted with the U.S. Government's importation ban on Russian firearms.

The Baikal IZH-79-8 is a modified version of the standard Makarov pistol, with an 8 mm barrel, modified to allow it to fire gas cartridges. These guns proved popular after the fall of the USSR, and were used in Eastern Europe for personal protection. However, unlike most gas firing guns, the body is made of standard Makarov-specification steel, and hence this gun is popular with criminals due to its low cost of purchase and ease of boring out to fire standard 9 mm rounds.[17]

Users

See also

References

  1. ^ Small Arms Survey (2012). "Surveying the Battlefield: Illicit Arms In Afghanistan, Iraq, and Somalia" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets. Cambridge University Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-521-19714-4.
  2. ^ Makarov.com, Makarov Basics, retrieved 2008-01-27
  3. ^ Dowling, Timothy C. (2015). Russia at War. ABC CLIO. p. 496. ISBN 978-1-59884-947-9. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  4. ^ Sweeney, Patrick (2009). Gunsmithing - Pistols and Revolvers. GunDigest Books. p. 355. ISBN 978-1-4402-0389-3. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  5. ^ Peterson, Philip (23 June 2011). "How Did They Get Here?". Standard Catalog of Military Firearms: The Collector's Price and Reference Guide. Iola, Wisconsin: F+W Media. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-4402-2881-0. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  6. ^ world.guns.ru, Modern Firearms - Makarov PM, archived from the original on 2008-04-05, retrieved 2008-01-27
  7. ^ Galeotti, Mark (February 2017). The Modern Russian Army 1992–2016. Elite 217. Osprey Publishing. pp. 55–56. ISBN 9781472819086.
  8. ^ Hogg, Ian; Walter, John (29 August 2004). Pistols of the World. David & Charles. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-87349-460-1. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  9. ^ a b c Kinard, Jeff (2004). Pistols: An Illustrated History of Their Impact. ABC-CLIO. pp. 257, 259–260. ISBN 978-1-85109-470-7. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  10. ^ "Department of Justice Bureau of Firearms De-Certified Handgun Models" (PDF). ca.gov. Department of Justice Bureau of Firearms. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
  11. ^ Cutshaw, Charles Q. (28 February 2011). Tactical Small Arms of the 21st Century: A Complete Guide to Small Arms From Around the World. Iola, Wisconsin: Gun Digest Books. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-4402-2709-7. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  12. ^ http://ria.ru/defense_safety/20150801/1157827137.html
  13. ^ world.guns.ru Quote: "almost immediately after the war the GAU issued a new set of requirements for a military and police pistol. These requirements asked for a compact, double action pistol of the Walther PP type...". Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  14. ^ ' "BAIKAL-442" Sporting Pistol (for export)' Archived 2009-08-31 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ Adam Luck (11 January 2009). "How the Baikal became Britain's favourite killing machine". Daily Mail. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  17. ^ Albania: Special Operations and Counterterrorist Forces Archived 2013-08-22 at the Wayback Machine. at specialoperations.com (a non-official, personal website). Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  18. ^ Small Arms Survey (2007). "Armed Violence in Burundi: Conflict and Post-Conflict Bujumbura" (PDF). The Small Arms Survey 2007: Guns and the City. Cambridge University Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-521-88039-8.
  19. ^ Kokalis, Peter. Weapons Tests And Evaluations: The Best Of Soldier Of Fortune. Paladin Press. 2001. pp99–102.
  20. ^ Hogg, Ian (2002). Jane's Guns Recognition Guide. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-00-712760-X.
  21. ^ "Urgent Fury 1983: WWII weapons encountered". wordpress.com. 18 October 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  22. ^ Small Arms Survey (2005). "Sourcing the Tools of War: Small Arms Supplies to Conflict Zones" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2005: Weapons at War. Oxford University Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-19-928085-8.
  23. ^ US Department of Defense: North Korea Country Handbook (1997) page xii, at Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  24. ^ "Google Sites". sites.google.com. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  25. ^ http://www.mo.gov.si/fileadmin/mo.gov.si/pageuploads/pdf/javne_objave/2015/orozje_2015/Sklopi1_8_za_objavo.pdf
  26. ^ a b Marchington, James (2004). The Encyclopedia of Handheld Weapons. Lewis International, Inc. ISBN 1-930983-14-X.
  27. ^ VCCorp.vn. "Quân đội Nhân dân Việt Nam được trang bị những loại súng ngắn nào". soha.vn. Retrieved 22 March 2018.

Bibliography

  • Datig, Fred A. (1988). The History and Development of Imperial and Soviet Russian Military Small Arms and Ammunition 1700–1986. Glenview, IL: Handgun Press. ISBN 9780945828037. OCLC 19742826.
  • Kokalis, Peter (2001). Weapons Tests and Evaluations: The Best of Soldier of Fortune. Boulder, Col.: Paladin Press. pp. 99–102. ISBN 978-1-58160-122-0. OCLC 49695650.

External links

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